The current biggest narrative in the technology sector is AI, but what’s next? After digging into it, I found the answer: Quantum Computing. Since its inception in the 1980s, the quantum computing industry has seen tremendous growth. Now, dozens of companies and startups are investing and raising millions of dollars for research and development in this field. This article might be more relevant after few years or half a decade.

### What is Quantum Computing?

To understand quantum computing, we first need to understand how a normal computer works. A classical computer processes data using binary digits (bits) that can be either 0 or 1. For example, the letter “A” is represented as 01000001 in binary. A computer performs calculations and executes instructions through a central processing unit (CPU) using a sequence of logic gates and transistors. Data and instructions are stored in memory, and the computer operates by following a set of programmed instructions (software) to accomplish various tasks.

A quantum computer, on the other hand, consists of qubits. **Qubits** are bits of information that can be 1 and 0 simultaneously—a state called superposition. This means that if you have 2 bits, you have 2 bits of information. But if you have 2 qubits, you have 4 bits of information (00, 10, 01, 11).

**Simply put, the number of combinations of N bits in a normal classical computer is N. But for a quantum computer with N qubits, the number of possible combinations is 2^N.** Thus, it takes four 2-bit classical computers to create the same number of outputs as two 2-qubit quantum computers, making quantum computers considerably more powerful. The most advanced quantum computer we have consists of 1,000 qubits.

### Quantum Computers vs. Classical Computers

*However, quantum computers are not just more advanced versions of classical computers; they are fundamentally different. For example, you cannot compare a candle to a light bulb; you cannot build a light bulb by making a candle better and better. Similarly, quantum computers and classical computers are incomparable.*

*Despite their potential, quantum computers are currently very unstable.* This instability means they are not yet as technically advanced as classical computers. **For instance, we cannot read articles or watch videos on quantum computers as we do on classical computers.** So, why make a big deal of it if we cannot even watch a video on it?

### Why is Quantum Computing Important?

The answer lies in encryption. Quantum computers can solve complex mathematical problems and decrypt codes much faster than classical computers. This includes breaking email passwords, bank passwords, and all private keys.

**Quantum uncertainty can be used to create private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another. Hackers cannot break these keys without breaking the laws of quantum physics.**

Quantum computers can solve certain types of problems significantly faster than classical computers, tackling issues that would take classical computers millions of years to solve in just seconds.

### Advantages of Quantum Computing

**Speed and Efficiency**: Quantum computers can solve certain complex problems much faster than classical computers, particularly those involving large-scale optimization, cryptography, and simulation.**Parallelism**: Due to superposition, quantum computers can process a vast number of possibilities simultaneously, offering a significant advantage for tasks like searching large databases or solving complex mathematical problems.**Advanced Cryptography**: Quantum computing can enable the development of new cryptographic methods that are potentially unbreakable, enhancing security in communication and data protection.**Complex Simulations**: Quantum computers can simulate molecular and atomic interactions at a detailed level, which is valuable for fields like material science, chemistry, and drug discovery.

### Disadvantages of Quantum Computing

**Technical Challenges**: Quantum computers are highly sensitive to environmental interference, leading to issues with qubit stability and coherence, making error correction a significant challenge.**Scalability**: Building and maintaining large-scale quantum computers with thousands or millions of qubits is currently beyond our reach, limiting their practical applications to small-scale or experimental use.**High Costs**: The development and maintenance of quantum computers require significant investment in terms of resources, technology, and expertise, making them expensive compared to classical computers.**Security Risks**: Quantum computers have the potential to break many of the cryptographic systems currently in use, posing a threat to data security and privacy until quantum-resistant cryptographic methods are widely implemented.

### The Future of Quantum Computing

**Apple recently announced that its iMessage feature is now quantum-resistant.** Big tech companies are recognizing the significance of this technology. Why is Apple doing this now? Why is JP Morgan investing hundreds of millions of dollars into quantum security? Research shows that China is advancing rapidly in this field and has already managed to break basic encrypted codes using quantum computing.

### Conclusion

Quantum computing represents a fundamentally new type of computer that could help us solve specific types of problems significantly faster. While it may not be ready to replace classical computers for everyday tasks, its potential for solving complex problems and enhancing encryption makes it a critical area of research and development.

*Stay tuned to learn more about this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. *